Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, December 2017 – ISSN 2412-5954
MMSE Journal. Open Access www.mmse.xyz
Analysis of Sanitary and Hygienic Labour Conditions of Drivers of Public
Transport Buses
1
Deriugin О.V.
1,a
, Tretiak О.О.
1,b
, Cheberyachko S.І.
1,c
1 – State Higher Educational Institution “National Mining University”, Ukraine
a oleg.kot@meta.ua
b – lenusia3366@gmail.com
c – sihc@yandex.ua
DOI 10.2412/mmse.45.99.15 provided by Seo4U.link
Keywords: sanitary and hygienic conditions, harmful factors, noise load, vibration load, temperature environment,
concentration of harmful substances, public transport bus, maximum permissible level.
ABSTRACT. Sanitary and hygienic labour conditions of the drivers of public transport buses have been analyzed. Three
of the most popular brands of public transport buses have been studied. It has been determined that sanitary and hygienic
labour conditions of such public transport buses as “Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 411”, “Ruta 23”, “Bohdan А20111” have
negative indices. Moreover, they are characterized by excess level of noise load (2.9 to 7.7 dBA), vibration load (10 to
20 dB), and such microclimatic indices of working environment which excess in summer achieves inadmissible figures
(up to 15-20
0
С). Positive result of the analysis has also been identified, i.e. concentration of harmful substances within
working environment is less than the admissible level.
Introduction. Efficiency and safety of passenger transportation by means of motor vehicles depends
directly of psychophysical state and health of a driver; the requirements are regulated by the current
legislation. Commonly known unfavourable effect of harmful factors upon drivers when they perform
transportation work (stressful and often variable conditions of passenger transportation, increased
responsibility for passenger safety in the context of time deficit, imperfect design of motor vehicles,
effect of harmful substances etc.) results in both progress of occupational diseases and effect on
systematic diseases state. Following diseases can be singled out among the basic risks of occupational
diseases contraction - blood circulatory system diseases as well as disease connected with overfatigue,
fatigue, and depression (Fig. 1 [1, 2]).
Recently, modern medicine has paid more and more attention to the studies dealing with the effect of
harmful substances formed in the process of passenger transportation upon drivers’ health. Two types
of factors of objective evaluation and subjective evaluation are applied to do that.
Group 1 includes functioning of spare capacities of cardiovascular system and respiratory system as
well as supporting-motor apparatus while taking into consideration age properties of the people under
examination. Group 2 includes subjective evaluation of health according to questionnaire survey. The
evaluation reflects partially the characteristics of central nervous system [3-6].
As a result, determination of regularities of the interaction between the effect of harmful working
factors upon the level of occupational diseases of drivers is one of the key problems today (Fig. 2).
1
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Magnolithe GmbH. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, December 2017 – ISSN 2412-5954
MMSE Journal. Open Access www.mmse.xyz
Fig. 1. Structure of risks of occupational diseases contraction of drivers performing passenger
transportation by means of public transport buses [1, 2].
That is why analysis of sanitary and hygienic labour conditions being the initial data for various
studies (decrease in biological age of drivers, level of occupational risk of various diseases
contraction, determination of efficient operating modes etc.) concerning labour conditions and health
of drivers of public transport buses is a burning problem.
Fig. 2. Harmful environmental factors effecting upon the health of drivers of public buses
Statement of the research task. Despite the fact ,that sanitary and hygienic working conditions of
public transport bus drivers in the process of passenger transportation have already been adequately
studied and used as the basis for relevant standards to provide rational labour activity of drivers [7],
the problem of occupational health maintenance as well as the development of safe labour conditions
for drivers remains topical worldwide [8]. Due to the availability of the great number of private
carriers, more and more often scheduled requirements for the organization of work-rest regime of
drivers have started to be violated. Moreover, considerable relaxation of hold on the health has
resulted in the increased number of fatal cases of drivers when they transport passengers as well as in
the contraction of occupational diseases. Furthermore, psychological stress of drivers has incremented
greatly as well due to more intensive traffic, increased flow of input information for making decisions,
responsibility for the safety of transportation process, route complexity etc. Thus, in the city of
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, December 2017 – ISSN 2412-5954
MMSE Journal. Open Access www.mmse.xyz
Dnipro, a driver who transported passengers within the route #76 (residential area “Livoberezhnyi”–
Nagornyi Rynok) died of heart attack on 09.02.2017.
In due time, the problems were highlighted by a number of national and foreign scientists. In
particular, papers by Yu.O Davidich considered the issues of ergonomic support of transportation
process to minimize their effect upon labour activity of drivers. The scientist managed to find
dependence of the changes in physiological state of drivers upon the length of the route, its
complexity, power of a vehicle and other parameters [9]. However, he paid minor attention to the
effect of sanitary and hygienic conditions. This very disadvantage is also observed in a paper by О.О.
Lobashov [10] where he analyzes labour activity of a driver, his/her possibility to perform both
physical and mental work connected with driving process, ability to keep the required rate and
struggle against fatigue. Interesting data were published in a paper by T.L. Liebiediev at al. The
authors tried to establish relations between the inadequacy of standards concerning driving period
and chronic fatigue as well as increased nervous and emotional stress stipulating the changes in
vegetative nervous system and increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diseases of digestive
system [11]. Consequently, it is required to analyze the effect of harmful factors and labour conditions
of public transport bus drivers.
Objective and task of the research. Objective of the research data was to measure harmful factors:
level of noise load, level of vibration load, temperature environment of working space, concentration
of harmful substances within the working space for the analysis of sanitary and hygienic labour
conditions of drivers of the corresponding brands of public transport buses.
To achieve the objective it is required to solve following problems:
- to measure the indices of harmful factor: level of noise load, level of vibration load, temperature
environment of working space of drivers of different brands of public transport buses;
- to make comparative analysis of the obtained results of indices of harmful factors with maximum
permissible levels (MPLs) of DSTU determining standards of working environment.
Materials and research methodology. Sanitary and hygienic labour conditions of drivers of public
transport buses in terms of indices of basic unfavourable working factors (level of vibration load,
level of noise load, concentration of harmful substances within the working space etc.) were estimated
at working places of drivers of public transport buses of corresponding brands: “Mercedes Benz
Sprinter 411”, “Ruta 23”, “Bohdan А20111” being the most popular in the segment of passenger
transportation performed with the help of motor vehicles in the city of Dnipro. The experiment
involved 12 drivers at the age of 28-45 whose working experience was 5-20 years. Total estimation
of labour conditions relied upon the requirements and recommendations stipulated in Hygienic labour
classification according to the indices of harmfulness and hazard of working environment, complexity
and stressfulness of the labour process (Order # 248 of 08.04.2014 registered in the Ministry of Justice
of Ukraine on the 6
th
of May 2014, #472/25249).
Level of noise load was measures according to the developed methodology and DSN 3.3.6.037-99
“Sanitary standards of working noise, ultrasound, and infrasound”. Level of noise load at the working
place of a driver was measured with the help of “Шум-1М” device when velocity was 45-60 km/h.
The least velocity was selected of the velocities. The measurements were performed according to five
(at least) values of constant velocities with the value rounding to 5km/h: the least index, the highest
index, and intermediate index to provide interval evenness between the velocity values of a public
transport bus. No less than three measurements of noise load value were performed within each point
of the location of “Шум-1М” device microphone. According to the results of the measurements,
averaged arithmetic values rounded to the whole number were taken. If the difference between the
greatest and the least values of noise load levels in each point exceeded 2 dBA, then the measurements
were repeated.
Sanitary and hygienic analyses of temperature environment parameters of working space of a driver
of public transport bus corresponded to following regulatory documents: DSN 3.3.6.042-99, DSN
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, December 2017 – ISSN 2412-5954
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3.3.6.096-2002, SN 2152-80, DSN 3.3.6.037-99 “Sanitary standards of microclimate in working
space”. Parameters of temperature environment of working space of a driver of public transport bus
were measured with the help of Ukrainian globe thermometer “Tenzor-41” and anemometer “TESTO
405-V1”.
The analysis was performed under following conditions: air shade temperature was +32. . . +34
0
С,
the bus was moving southward (deviation of the direction was + 15
0
. . . 20
0
), velocity was 80 … 90
km/h, the temperature was measured from 12
00
to 14
00
. It has been proved that within the time period
solar radiation and temperature indices being measured are the most stable [12]. Temperatures were
measured several times within following zones: driver’s head, chest, stomach-thighs, and feet-calves.
The research was performed in such an order. Taking into account the fact that seats of a driver and
a passenger are located symmetrically and climatic environment for a driver and passenger is similar,
thermometers were mounted on a passenger seat. The measurements were performed three times
within each zone with five-minute periodicity.
Sanitary and hygienic analysis of concentration parameters of harmful substances within working
space of a driver of a public transportation bus has been carried out in accordance with normative
documents: DSN 3.36.042-99 ”Sanitary standards of microclimate of work space”. Concentration
parameters of harmful substances within working space of a driver of a public transport bus were
measured with the help of “GX” gas analyser completed with indicator pipes to control: ammonia,
benzol, petroleum, xylol, carbon oxide, toluol, chlorine, oxides of nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, ethyl
ether, oil hydrocarbon certified in Ukraine. Total dust concentration in the air of driver’s operating
space has been determined with the help of “АЕРА” aspirator which helps sampling within the
breathing area of a driver to “АФА-10” analytical filters (in terms of 20 l/min air loss) being further
weighed on “VLO-200” analytical balance. Sampling time was registered with the help of timer.
Similar approach to identify hazardous concentrations of harmful substances was used in paper [13].
The obtained results were processed using methods of variance and correlation analysis involving
software application Microsoft Office – Excel-2010.
Level of vibration load was measured according to the developed methodology and DSN 3.3.6.039-
99 “State sanitary standards of production (total and local) vibration”. Vibration load at the working
place of a driver was measured with the help of digital contact vibrometer “AR63A (GM63A)”.
Vibration load at the working place of a drive of corresponding brands of public transport buses was
measured as follows: in the process of the public transport bus movement at constant velocity while
passenger transporting and involving motionless public transport bus during idle period within a
driver rest area. Gearbox vibration was analyzed in the process of public transport bus movement in
second gear within smooth section of asphalt road when rotation frequency of a crankshaft was 1200-
1300 rot/min.
Results of the research. It has been determined that the level of noise load is among unfavourable
factors effecting upon a driver health in a cab of public transport bus (Table 1). It is common
knowledge that level of noise load effects considerably psychological state of a driver. There are
following consequences of noise load effect upon a driver: irritancy, low level of self-control and
attention. That may affect the process of positive decision-making to be important, for instance, for a
driver in the context of quick changes in situation while driving a vehicle in terms of urban traffic or
deterioration of attention in the process of long-term operation which will increase the risk of road
accident.
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, December 2017 – ISSN 2412-5954
MMSE Journal. Open Access www.mmse.xyz
Table 1. Levels of noise load at working place of a driver in a cab of a public transport bus.
Level of sound pressure in octane bands with average geometric
frequencies, Hz
Bus brand
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
Equivalent
level of
sound, dBA
“Mercedes
Benz Sprinter
411”
90.4±
0.56
86.4±
0.54
82.3±
0.50
78.3±
0.46
76.2±
0.49
69.2±
0.47
67.9±
0.44
63.1±
0.39
82.9
“Ruta 23”
91.3±
0.62
87.3±
0.59
83.1±
0.55
79.1±
0.51
77.0±
0.54
69.9±
0.52
68.6±
0.48
63.8±
0.43
84.6
“Bohdan
А20111”
94.9±
0.97
90.8±
0.95
86.4±
0.89
82.2±
0.82
80.0±
0.87
72.7±
0.84
71.3±
0.77
66.3±
0.69
87.7
Buses
91
83
77
73
70
68
66
64
80
According to the studies represented in Table 1 it is possible to conclude that average value of
equivalent level of noise load at working place of a driver in microbuses are: “Mercedes Benz Sprinter
411” -78.7 dBA; “Ruta 23” -78.8 dBA; “Bohdan А20111” 80.5 dBA. The indices of noise load
level of the corresponding brands of public transport buses are not higher than MPL rate. We consider
that there are various reasons for that from poorly fixed panels to required major repair of both
engine and passenger compartment. И
Working space temperature of a driver’s cab of a public transport bus effects the level of attention,
accuracy, responsivity, and comfort; moreover, it may result in fatigue progress etc. That is why the
index should meet the requirements of standards and cannot exceed MPL (Table 2).
The most favourable working conditions for drivers of public transport buses are: 18-23
0
С in cold
season and 20-23
0
С in warm one [14]. Temperature of a working space of driver’s cab in a public
transport bus depends on the design features hermiticity of a cab, location of engine, its heat
insulation, and efficiency of heating system or conditioning depending upon the season as well as
quality of materials used to equip the cab.
Research data represented in Table 2 may help conclude that during a warm season (June-September)
drivers work under conditions of increased temperature. Temperature values, starting from 6
th
successive hour of their work (10
00
-11
00
a.m.) exceeded permissible values and achieved 43-45
0
С.
Moreover, corresponding indices obtained in a cold season also differ considerably from the
permissible ones. It means that neither ventilation system not heating one can provide the required
air temperature. For instance, in summer sun-heating of cab walls, extra warm from the operating
engine and heat emission by passengers play important role as the majority of public transport buses
are not equipped with conditioner.
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Table 2. Microclimatic conditions at working places of public transport bus drivers.
Bus brand
Air temperature,
0
C
Relative humidity, %
Air rate, m/s
“Mercedes Benz Sprinter
411”
0.5-0.8
“Ruta 23”
0.5-0.9
“Bohdan А20111”
+2 - +29
16-78
0.6-0.9
MPL according to DSN
3.3.6.042-99
17-23
75
0.3
“Mercedes Benz Sprinter
411”
0.5-0.8
“Ruta 23”
0.9
“Bohdan А20111”
27-30
20-86
0.9
MPL according to DSN
3.3.6.042-99
18-27
65
0.2-0.4
Availability of harmful substances (dust) within working space of a bus driver as well as within a
passenger compartment effects significantly drivers’ health. In certain cases, negative effect of the
index may result in a progress of hypersensitivity reactions, deterioration of immune system, feeling
unwell by the bus drivers [15]. As data from Table 3 demonstrate, concentration levels of harmful
substances are within 7-10 mg/m
3
. However, the data are averaged indices; in certain cases, dust
concentration within a driver’s working place space was higher than MPL. Dry weather, level of tear
and wear or design imperfectness of protective tightening components of a public transport bus body
as well as road conditions of transportation favour it.
Table 3. Concentration levels of harmful substances (dust) within working space of a public
transport bus driver.
Dust level (averaged), mg/m
3
Bus brand
Within a zone of driver’s
breathing
Near the floor
PCL
“Mercedes Benz Sprinter
411”
7.29±0.35
3.11±0.27
“Ruta 23”
7.86±0.43
4.49±0.42
“Bohdan А20111”
10.43±0.51
5.76±0.48
6.0
Contamination with toxic chemical substances of thermal destruction products of discharged fuel and
oils of the transport means itself as well as harmful substances getting into the public transport bus
from the environment are considerable unfavourable factor within cabs of public transport buses.
Oxides of nitrogen and carbon are among hazardous harmful substances for drivers’ health. For
instance, in insignificant amounts, the former may provoke sense of alcoholic intoxication, thus
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, December 2017 – ISSN 2412-5954
MMSE Journal. Open Access www.mmse.xyz
resulting in road accident participation. That very time, nitrogen dioxides irritate mucous coats of
respiratory tracts which may result in serious intoxication and provoke sensory, functional, and
pathological effects. In turn, carbon dioxide causes changes in central nervous system by means of
its own effect and hypoxia state. According to the data from Table 4, concentrations of carbon oxide
and nitrogen oxide are within the standard rates in a working space of the public transport bus cabs.
However, in the context of the decrease of cab hermiticity indices and incomplete fuel combustion
resulting from the deferred maintenance of engine systems, their concentration may experience
drastic increase. It should also be noted that the increase in concentration of harmful chemical
substances may also be a result of idle time of public transport buses in traffic jams.
Table 4. Concentration levels of harmful chemical substances within the working space of a driver
of public transport bus.
Contamination of cabs of public transport buses with harmful
chemical substances, mg/m³
Nitrogen oxides
(MPL is 5.0 mg/m³)
Carbon oxide
(MPL is 20.0 mg/m³)
Bus brand
Within a breathing
zone
Near the floor
Within a
breathing
zone
Near the
floor
“Mercedes Benz Sprinter
411”
2.1±0.5
1.9±0.2
7.8±1.4
7.2±1.1
“Ruta 23”
2.2±0.4
2.1±0.2
12.3±1.4
11.2±1.1
“Bohdan А20111”
2.4±0.3
2.5±0.4
18.6±2.1
15.7±1.9
The obtained data make the authorities of transportation enterprises take corresponding organizational
measures to minimize the effect of harmful factors to protect drivers’ health. We believe that the most
efficient method under current conditions is the correction of the modes of bus driver’s work and rest
making it possible for drivers to recover after their working shift.
Level of vibration load upon a driver is one of the most unfavourable working factors affecting the
health of public transport bus drivers. Bus movement is accompanied by the oscillations due to the
unbalanced force actions within units and aggregates as well as external changing action because of
road surface irregularities. The oscillations are transmitted to the body of a public transport bus; they
are also transmitted through road surface and ground to the elements of roadside area. Vibration load
action may be considered on the analogy of the noise in two aspects: effect upon a driver and
passengers of a public transport bus and effect upon the surrounding objects. Vibration load results
in the violation of physiological and functional state of a driver’s organism, fatigue, and devastating
diseases. Stable harmful physiological changes, being a result of long-term action of vibration load,
factor into vibration disease [16].
According to the research data (Table 5) one may conclude that the levels of vibration load at the
working places of bus drivers exceeded standard rates by 10-20 dB (MPL according to the value of
vibration acceleration should be 65 dB). Imperfectness of design or poor condition of a vehicle
suspension system is the reasons to consider public transport buses as inappropriate in terms of
vibration load.
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Table 5. Levels of vibration load within the cab of a public transport bus.
Bus brand
Axels X
0
, Y
0
,
Z
0
Corrected value of
vibration, dB
Minimum and
maximum values, dB
Z
0
75.8
70-80
“Mercedes Benz Sprinter
411”
X
0
, Y
0
71.8
68.5-76.0
Z
0
80.5
73-90
“Ruta23”
X
0
, Y
0
85.0
77-93
Z
0
77.0
74-89
“Bohdan А20111”
X
0
, Y
0
86.3
74-97
Z
0
65 – vibration acceleration;
107 – vibration velocity
Buses
X
0
, Y
0
62 – vibration acceleration;
116 - vibration velocity
Summary. According to the results of the analysis of sanitary and hygienic labour conditions of
drivers of such public transport buses as “Mercedes Benz Sprinter 411”, “Ruta 23”, “Bohdan
А20111” being the most popular in the segment of motor passenger transportations in the city of
Dnipro, it is possible to draw following conclusions. All the tested public transport buses have
excessive levels of noise load (2.9-7.7 dBA), excessive levels of vibration (10-20 dB), and excessive
indices of microclimatic conditions at the working places of public transport buses drivers which
become inadmissible as temperature indices of the excess are up to 15-20
0
С. However, the analysis
of sanitary and hygienic labour conditions of drivers of public transport buses has positive result as
well – concentration of harmful substances within a working place of a public transport bus driver is
not higher than MPL. In addition to recommendations concerning the decrease in harmful effect of
negative factors, it is suggested to reconsider modes of driver’s work and rest. Their working shift
should not last more than 8 hours with obligatory breaks to have rest lasting not less than 45 minutes
after each cycle.
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