Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria

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Ihom A.P., Uko D.K., Markson I.E., Eleghasim O.C. (2017). Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria. Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, Vol 10. doi:10.2412/mmse.100.67.317

Authors: Ihom A.P., Uko D.K., Markson I.E., Eleghasim O.C.

ABSTRACT. The study Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria has been undertaken. The study took samples of harvested rainwater from the rooftops of buildings in four different locations in Uyo Metropolis. The samples were taken for analysis at the Ministry of Science and Technology Laboratory-Uyo. The parameters of the harvested rainwater investigated covered physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, total organic carbon (TOC) and total coliform count (TCC). Gravimetric, titrimetric and instrumental methods of analysis were used in determining the various parameters investigated. The result was analysed by comparing it with WHO and Ministry of Environment standard specifications for drinking water. The result was equally compared with the composition of the dark-black stains on the rooftops to establish whether the stains on the rooftops were from the rainwater. Findings were astounding; the rainwater was acidic in all the four stations and could not meet up with WHO standard for drinking water. Lead values of 0.75 mg/l and 0.22 mg/l in stations 2 and 3 respectively exceeded WHO standard specification of 0.01mg/l for drinking water. The iron content in the water from stations 2, 3, and 4 all exceeded WHO standard specification for drinking water of 0.30mg/l. All the four stations had cadmium content in the rainwater, which was more than WHO specification for drinking water of 0.003mg/l. The water showed bacteria contamination with total coliform count of 118MPN/100ml in station 4. Some of the parameters in the rainwater also reported in the composition of the dark-black stains on the rooftops an indication that the rain contributed to the dark-black stains on the rooftops in Uyo metropolis. The study concluded that harvested rainwater from the rooftops of buildings in Uyo metropolis is polluted and is not suitable for drinking, bathing and even for use in fish farming. The study therefore recommended that the health implication of this study be carried out by relevant agencies of government.

Keywords: rainwater, quality, harvest, WHO, dark-black stains, rooftops

DOI 10.2412/mmse.100.67.317

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