Passivation of Titanium Oxide in Polyethylene Matrices using Polyelectrolytes as Titanium Dioxide Surface Coating

<- Back to I. Materials Science Vol. 8

Cite the paper

Javier Vallejo-Montesinos, Julio Cesar López Martínez,  Juan Manuel Montejano-Carrizales, Elías Pérez, Javier Balcázar Pérez, A. Almendárez-Camarillo, J.A. Gonzalez-Calderon (2017). Passivation of Titanium Oxide in Polyethylene Matrices using Polyelectrolytes as Titanium Dioxide Surface Coating. Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, Vol 8. doi:10.2412/mmse.96.48.950

Authors: Javier Vallejo-Montesinos, Julio Cesar López Martínez,  Juan Manuel Montejano-Carrizales, Elías Pérez, Javier Balcázar Pérez, A. Almendárez-Camarillo, J.A. Gonzalez-Calderon

ABSTRACT. One of the major challenges of the polyolefins nowadays is the ability of those to resist weathering conditions, specially the photodegradation process that suffer any polyolefin. A common way to prevent this, is the use of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) are employed. An alternative route to avoid photodegradation is using polyelectrolites as coating of fillers such as metal oxides. Composites of polyethylene were made using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a filler with polyelectrolytes (polyethylenimine and sodium polystyrene sulfonate) attached to its surface, to passivate its photocatalytic activity. We exposed the samples to ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) light to observe the effect of radiation on the degradation of coated samples, compared to those without the polyelectrolyte coating. From the experimental results, we found that polyethylenimine has a similar carbonyl signal area to the sample coated with hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) while sodium polystyrene sulfonate exhibit more degradation than the HALS coated samples, but it passivates the photocatalytic effect when compared with the non-coated TiO2 samples. Also, using AFM measurements, we confirmed that the chemical nature of polyethylenimine causes the TiO2 avoid the migration to the surface during the extrusion process, inhibiting the photodegradation process and softening the sample. On this basis, we found that polyethylenimine is a good choice for reducing the degradation caused by TiO2 when it is exposed to UV-Vis light.

Keywords: polyelectrolytes, titanium oxide, coating, passivation, polyethylenimine, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, photodegradation

DOI 10.2412/mmse.96.48.950

View in web format Passivation of Titanium Oxide in Polyethylene Matrices using Polyelectrolytes as Titanium Dioxide Surface Coating

References

[1] Diebold, U. (2003). The surface science of titanium dioxide. Surface Science Reports, 48(5), 53–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5729(02)00100-0

[2] Bonhôte, P., Gogniat, E., Grätzel, M., & Ashrit, P. (1999). Novel electrochromic devices based on complementary nanocrystalline TiO2 and WO3 thin films. Thin Solid Films, 350(1), 269–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(99)00229-1

[3] Henderson, M. A. (2002). The interaction of water with solid surfaces: fundamental aspects revisited. Surface Science Reports, 46(1), 1–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5729(01)00020-6

[4] Chen, X., & Mao, S. S. (2007). Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, Modifications, and Applications. Chemical Reviews, 107(7), 2891–2959. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr0500535

[5] Dilara, P. A., & Briassoulis, D. (2000). Degradation and Stabilization of Low-density Polyethylene Films used as Greenhouse Covering Materials. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 76(4), 309–321. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1999.0513

[6] Briassoulis, D., Aristopoulou, A., Bonora, M., & Verlodt, I. (2004). Degradation Characterisation of Agricultural Low-density Polyethylene Films. Biosystems Engineering, 88(2), 131–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2004.02.010

[7] Feldman, D. (2002). Polymer Weathering: Photo-Oxidation. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 10(4), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021148205366

[8] Miyazaki, K., & Nakatani, H. (2009). Preparation of degradable polypropylene by an addition of poly (ethylene oxide) microcapsule containing TiO2. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 94(12), 2114–2120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2009.10.001

[9] Chiellini, E., Corti, A., D’Antone, S., & Baciu, R. (2006). Oxo-biodegradable carbon backbone polymers – Oxidative degradation of polyethylene under accelerated test conditions. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91(11), 2739–2747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.03.022

[10] Hisyam, A., Yunus, R. M., & Bag, D. H. (2013). Thermo-oxidative Degradation of High Density Polyethylene Containing Manganese Laurate. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(2), 1156–1165.

[11] Arutchelvi, J., Sudhakar, M., Arkatkar, A., Doble, M., Bhaduri, S., & Uppara, P. V. (2008). Biodegradation of polyethylene and polypropylene. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1), 9–22.

[12] Massey, S., Adnot, A., Rjeb, A., & Roy, D. (2007). Action of water in the degradation of low-density polyethylene studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Express Polymer Letters, 1(8), 506–511. https://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2007.72

[13] Rex, I., Graham, B. A., & Thompson, M. R. (2005). Studying single-pass degradation of a high-density polyethylene in an injection molding process. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 90(1), 136–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.03.002

[14] Pinheiro, L. A., Chinelatto, M. A., & Canevarolo, S. V. (2004). The role of chain scission and chain branching in high density polyethylene during thermo-mechanical degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 86(3), 445–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.05.016

[15] Singh, B., & Sharma, N. (2008). Mechanistic implications of plastic degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 93(3), 561–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2007.11.008

[16] Tidjani, A. (2000). Comparison of formation of oxidation products during photo-oxidation of linear low-density polyethylene under different natural and accelerated weathering conditions. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 68(3), 465–469. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(00)00039-2

[17] Zhao, X., Li, Z., Chen, Y., Shi, L., & Zhu, Y. (2008). Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene plastic with CuPc modified TiO2 photocatalyst under solar light irradiation. Applied Surface Science, 254(6), 1825–1829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.07.154

[18] Corrales, T., Catalina, F., Peinado, C., Allen, N. S., & Fontan, E. (2002). Photooxidative and thermal degradation of polyethylenes: interrelationship by chemiluminescence, thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR data. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 147(3), 213–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(01)00629-3

[19] Klemchuk, P. P. (1994). Mechanism of Polymer Stabilization by Hindered-Amine Light Stabilizers (HALS ). Model Investigations of the Interaction of Peroxy Radicals with HALS Amines and Amino Ethers. Macromolecules, 27(1), 2529–2539. DOI: 10.1021/ma00087a022

[20] Ziolkowski, L., Vinodgopal, K., & Kamat, P. V. (1997). Photostabilization of Organic Dyes on Poly (styrenesulfonate) – Capped TiO 2 Nanoparticles. Langmuir, 13(9), 3124–3128. DOI: 10.1021/la970075p

[21] Tong, T., Zhang, J., Tian, B., Chen, F., & He, D. (2008). Preparation and characterization of anatase TiO2 microspheres with porous frameworks via controlled hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide followed by hydrothermal treatment. Materials Letters, 62(17–18), 2970–2972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2008.01.085

[22] Scepanovic, M., Grujic-Brojcin, M., Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z. D., & Popovic, Z. V. (2009). Characterization of anatase TiO2 nanopowder by variable-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Science of Sintering, 41(1), 67–73. https://doi.org/10.2298/SOS0901067S

[23] Huo, H., Jiang, S., An, L., & Feng, J. (2004). Influence of Shear on Crystallization Behavior of the Isotactic Polypropylene with -Nucleating Agent. Macromolecules, 37, 2478–2483.

[24] Qin-Bao Lin, He Li, Huai-Ning Z., Quan Z., Da-Hui X., Zhi-Wei W. (2014). Migration of Ti from nano-TiO2-polyethylene composite packaging into food simulants. Food Additives & Contaminants, 31, 1284-1290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.907505

Creative Commons Licence
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering Journal by Magnolithe GmbH is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mmse.xyz.