The Zenith Passage of the Sun and the Architectures of the Tropical Zone

<- Back to IX. Philosophy of Research and Education Vol. 10

Cite the paper

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna (2017). The Zenith Passage of the Sun and the Architectures of the Tropical Zone. Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, Vol 10. doi:10.2412/mmse.20.89.933

Authors: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

ABSTRACT. In ancient cultures all over the world, summer and winter solstices and equinoxes had a great importance. These astronomical events had been widely considered in the planning of monuments and other architectures. But in the zone of the Earth delimited by the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, we can see another relevant event, the zenith passage of the sun. In this paper we will show that several examples are existing too, of the role of this astronomic event in the architectures of tropical zone. To evidence this role, we will use a software developed for the best solar energy management, which is showing azimuth and altitude of the sun on satellite maps.

Keywords: architecture planning, history of architecture and engineering, satellite images, solar energy software

DOI 10.2412/mmse.20.89.933

View in web format The Zenith Passage of the Sun and the Architectures of the Tropical Zone

References

[1] Roller, D.W. (2010). Eratosthenes’ Geography, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN: 9780691142678

[2] Hawkes, J. (1967). God in the Machine, Antiquity, 41(163), 174-180. DOI: 10.1017/s0003598x00033202

[3] Ray, T.P. (1989). The Winter Solstice Phenomenon at Newgrange, Ireland: Accident or Design? Nature, 337(6205), 343-345. DOI: 10.1038/342958c0

[4] Richards, J. C. (2007). Stonehenge: The Story So Far, English Heritage. ISBN: 9781905624003

[5] Sparavigna A.C. (2013). The Gardens of Taj Mahal and the Sun, International Journal of Sciences, 2(11), 104-107. DOI: 10.18483/ijsci.346

[6] Sparavigna A.C. (2013). Solar Azimuths in the Planning of a Nur Jahan’s Charbagh, International Journal of Sciences, 2(12), 8-10. DOI: 10.18483/ijsci.353

[7] Sparavigna A.C. (2015). Observations on the Orientation of Some Mughal Gardens. Philica Article number 455. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2745160

[8] Sparavigna A.C. (2013). Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns, International Journal of Sciences, 2(11), 52-59. DOI: 10.18483/ijsci.334

[9] Sparavigna A.C. (2014). Solstices at the Hardknott Roman Fort, Philica Article Number 442. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2745184

[10] Sparavigna A.C. (2013). Astronomical Alignments of Ales Stenar Along Sunset and Moonset Directions, Philica Article Number 663. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2818991

[11] Sparavigna A.C (2015). Light and Shadows in Bernini’s Oval of Saint Peter’s Square, Philica Article number 540. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2742281

[12] Aveni A. (2001). Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico, 2nd Edition. University of Texas Press. ISBN: 9780292775787

[13] Aveni, F., & Hartung, H. (1981). The Observation of the Sun at the Times of Passage through the Zenith in Mesoamerica, Archaeoastronomy (Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy), 12(3), S51-S70. Available at SAO/NASA (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/ full/1981JHAS…12…51A

[14] Broda, J. (2006). Zenith Observations and the Conceptualization of Geographical Latitude in Ancient Mesoamerica: A Historical and Interdisciplinary Approach. Proceedings of the Oxford Seven Conference in Archaeoastronomy, edited by Todd Bostwick and Bryan Bates. Pages 183-212. ISBN: 1882572386

[15] Freidel, D., Schele, L., & Parker, J. (1993). Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman’s Path. William Morrow Paperbacks. ISBN: 9780688140694

[16] Mendez, A., & Karasik, C. (2014). Centering the world: zenith and nadir passages at Palenque. Archaeoastronomy and the Maya, 97. Draft available at http://www.academia.edu/2368146/ Centering_the_World

[17] Mendez, A., Barnhart, E.L., Powell, C., & Karasik, C. (2005). Astronomical Observations from the Temple of the Sun. Archaeoastronomy, Vol. XIX, pp. 44-73. University of Texas Press.

[18] Ghezzi, I., & Ruggles, C. (2007). Chankillo: a 2300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru. Science, 315(5816), 1239-1243. DOI: 10.1126/science.1136415

[19] Bauer, B., & Dearborn, D. (1995). Astronomy and Empire in the Ancient Andes, University of Texas Press. ISBN: 9780292708372

[20] Urton, G. (1981). At the Crossroads of the Earth and the Sky, University of Texas Press. ISBN: 9780292704046

[21] Sparavigna, A. C. (2012). The solar towers of Chankillo. arXiv preprint arXiv:1208.3580.

[22] Kolata, A.L. (1993). The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 9781557861832

[23] Sparavigna, A. C. (2016). The Zenith Passage of the Sun and its role in the Planning of Architectures. Philica, Article number 584. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2767664

[24] Sparavigna, A.C. (2013). The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka. arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.2853. Published in International Journal of Sciences, 2013, 2(11), 60-62 DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.335

[25] Senake Bandaranayake, & Madhyama Saṃskr̥tika Aramudala (2005). Sigiriya: City, Palace, Gardens, Monasteries, Painting (Sri Lanka), Central Cultural Fund. University of Michigan.

[26] Benille Priyanka (2005. Meaning of the Sigiriya Paintings: Based on Recent Archaeological Evidence, Godage International Publishers. ISBN: 9552086051

[27] Kameswara Rao, N. (1992). History of Astronomy: Astronomy with Buddhist stupas of Sanchi, Bull. Astr. Soc. India, 20, 87-98. Available at SAO/NASA (ADS) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1992BASI…20..243R

[28] Sparavigna, A. C. (2015). On the alignment of Sanchi monuments, Philica article number 543. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2761841

[29] Barnhart, E., & Powell, C. The Importance of Zenith Passage at Angkor, Cambodia. Available at web site www.mayaexploration.org/pdf/angkorzenithpassage.pdf

[30] Kuppanna Sastry, T. S. (1993). Pancasiddhantika of Varahamihira, Critically Edited, with Introduction and Appendices by K.V. Sarma. Foundation, Adyar, Madars. Available at https://archive.org/details/ PanchaSiddhantika

[31] Jarus, O. (2014). Angkor Wat: History of Ancient Temple, Live Science, October 8, 2014. Available at the site www.livescience.com/23841-angkor-wat.html

[32] Dumarçay, J. (2007). Candi Sewu and Buddhist architecture of Central Java, Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN: 9789799100887

[33] Sparavigna, A. C. (2017). The Sewu Temple and the zenithal passage of the sun. Philica Article number 970. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2920127

[34] Sparavigna, A. C. (2017). A Short Note about the Zenithal Sun and the Sewu, Prambanan and Borobudur Temples in Java. Philica Paper number 972. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2920124

[35] The Zenithal Sun. Available at http://www.4-ahau.com/en/Zenithal_Sun.html

[36] Levenda, P. (2011). Tantric Temples: Eros and Magic in Java, Nicolas-Hays, Inc., page 104, and references therein. ISBN: 9780892541690

[37] Java Heritage Tour, Layout Candi Prambanan. Retrieved February 12, 2017, http://www.javaheritagetour.com/the-beautiful-of-prambanan-temple/layout-candi-prambanan/

[38] Vv. Aa. (2017). Borobudur, Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur

[39] Long, M. E. (2015). An Eighth-century Commentary on the Nāmasaṅgīti and the Cluster of Temples on the Prambanan Plain, in Central Java. NALANDA–SRIWIJAYA CENTRE, Working Paper Series, No.20 (Nov 2015).

[40] Malmström, V. H. The Site of Izapa, Retrieved February 22, 2017, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~izapa/izapasite.html

[41] Malmström, V. H. (1997). Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN: 978-0292751972

[42] Aveni, A. F., & Linsley, R. M. (1972). Mound J, Monte Alban: possible astronomical orientation. American antiquity, 528-531. DOI: 10.2307/278959

[43] Macoowan, K. (1945). The orientation of Middle American sites. American Antiquity, 11(2), 118-118. DOI: 10.2307/275663

[44] Apenes, O. (1936). Possible derivation of the 260 day period of the Maya calendar. Ethnos, 1(1), 5-8. DOI: 10.1080/00141844.1976.9980453

[45] Aveni, A. F., & Gibbs, S. L. (1976). On the orientation of precolumbian buildings in central Mexico. American Antiquity, 510-517. DOI: 10.2307/279020

[46] Dearborn, D. S., & Schrieber, K. J. (1986). Here comes the sun: the Cuzco-Machu Picchu connection. Archaeoastronomy, 9, 15.

[47] Gullberg, S. R. (2010). Inca solar orientations in southeastern Peru. Journal of cosmology, 9, 2078-2091.

[48] Aveni, A. F., Milbrath, S., & Lope, C. P. (2004). Chichén Itzá’s legacy in the astronomically oriented architecture of Mayapán. Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics, 45(1), 123-143. DOI: 10.1086/resv45n1ms20167624

[49] Mendez, A., & Karasik, C. (2014). Centering the world: zenith and nadir passages at Palenque. Archaeoastronomy and the Maya, 97.

[50] INAH (2008). Astronomical Value of Mexican World Heritage Sites, Analysed. Available at http://www.inah.gob.mx/en/4383-astronomical-value-of-mexican-world-heritage-sites-analyzed

https://mmse.xyz/Papers/ID201704291.pdf

Creative Commons Licence
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering Journal by Magnolithe GmbH is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mmse.xyz.