Understanding the Nature and Characteristics of Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria

<- Back to VI. Environmental Safety Vol. 11

Cite the paper

A.P., Ihom; D.K., Uko; I.E., Markson; O.C., Eleghasim

Understanding the Nature and Characteristics of Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria Journal Article

Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, 11 , 2017, ISSN: 2412-5954.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Authors: Ihom A.P., Uko D.K., Markson I.E., Eleghasim O.C.

ABSTRACT. Understanding the Nature and Characteristics of Dark-Black Stains on Roof-Tops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria; a study aimed at knowing the nature and characteristics of dark black stains on rooftops in Uyo metropolis has been undertaken. The study which covered key areas of the town, involved taking samples from rooftops, these samples were sent out for tests using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES), X -Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The tests were carried out on the dark black stains which were scrapped from the rooftops. Tests were also carried out on the sheets, which were directly cut from the roofs. The work was able to establish that the dark black stains on the roofs can be cleaned using soft brush and water. The results of the work equally provided the nature and characteristics of the dark black stains on the surface of roofs in Uyo metropolis. The major components of the dark black stains are alumina (16%), silica (43.80%), carbonaceous and volatile organic matter (16.59%), iron oxide (heamatite) (10.55%), potassium oxide (3.20%), titanium oxide (2.93%) and sulphite (SO3) (2.71%). The SEM micrographs gave the structure of the dark black stains which were scrapped from the roofs, the structure revealed small shinny white particles, amorphous molecular structure similar to that of polymers and a crystal structure which resembles that formed by carbon and silica. The SEM micrographs also show how the stains are formed on aluminium and zinc substrate. The nature and characteristics of the dark black stains have indicated that using water from these rooftops for direct consumption purpose may have some health implications, and relevant government agencies are requested to investigate the health implications.

Keywords: understanding, environmental pollution, nature, characterization, dark black stains, Uyo

DOI 10.2412/mmse.95.14.172


[1] Asanusung, K.E. (2014) Investigation of the possible causes of Aluminium Roofing Sheet Discolouration and its remedy: A Case Study of the University of Uyo Male Hostel Roof, Permanent Site, PGD Project, Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

[2] Bhatia, S.C.(2008) Environmental Chemistry, 4th Edition Reprint, published by Satish Kumar Jain for CBS Publishers & Distributors, Darya Ganj, New Delhi (India) p. 1-20.

[3] Dara, S.S. (2007) A Text book of Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Control, Seventh Reprint, S.Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nagar New Delhi, p. 24-31.

[4] Dangelo, S. (2016), How White Roofs Can Help Your Home Cool, assessed at http//www.dangeloandson.com.

[5] Ihom, A.P. (2014) Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control: The Current Perspective (A Review), Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), Vol. 1 Issue 5, 93-99.

[6] Ihom, A.P. and Offiong, A. (2014) Zinc-Plated Roofing Sheets and the Effect of Atmospheric Pollution on the Durability of the Sheets, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), Vol. 1, Issue 4, 125-132.

[7] Inspect Apedia (2017) Accessed at www.InspectApedia.com

[8] Katsnelson, I.M. (2007) Graphene: Carbon in Two Dimensions, Materials Today, vol. 10, No.1- 2, 20-27.

[9] Kirby, J.R. (1996) Cleaning, Preventing algae on asphalt shingles, National Rooting Contractors Association p.45, available at www.nrca.net accessed 2015.

[10] Mendez C.B., Afshar B.R., Kinney K., Barret M.E., Kirisits, M.J. (2010) Effect of Root Material on Water Quality for rainwater harvesting Systems. Texas Water Development board Report.

[11] Nkwocha, C.O. (2010) Environmental Impact of Oil and Gas Production in Nigeria, Journal of energy and power engineering, vol. 6, pp. 70-75.

[12] Ola, S.A., Salami, S.J., Ihom, P.A.(2013) The Levels of Toxic Gases; Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide and Particulate Matter to Index Pollution in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria, Journal of Atmospheric Pollution, Vol. 1, No. 1, 8-11.

[13] Olajire, A.A., Ayodele, E.T., Onyedirdan, G.O., Olugbemi, E.A. (2003) Levels and Specification of Heavy Metals in Soils of Industrial Southern Nigeria, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, Vol. 82(2), 135-155.

[14] Person, D. and Kucera, V. (2001) Release of Metals from Buildings, Constructions and Products during Atmospheric Exposure in Stockholm, Water, Air, and Solid Pollution Focus, 1(3), 133-150.

[15] E. A. Tice (1962) Effects of Air Pollution on the Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of Some Metals and Alloys, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 12:12, 553-559, DOI 10.1080/00022470.1962.10468127

[17] WHO (2014), WHO Report Worsening Air Quality in Cities. The Guardian Mobile, 7 May, 2014

[18] Woods, J. (2017) Reflective Surfaces (Geoengineering) Accessed at http//en.wikipedia.org/

Creative Commons Licence
Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering Journal by Magnolithe GmbH is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mmse.xyz.