Understanding the Nature and Characteristics of Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria

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A.P., Ihom; D.K., Uko; I.E., Markson; O.C., Eleghasim

Understanding the Nature and Characteristics of Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria Journal Article

Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, 11 , 2017, ISSN: 2412-5954.

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Authors: Ihom A.P., Uko D.K., Markson I.E., Eleghasim O.C.

ABSTRACT. Understanding the Nature and Characteristics of Dark-Black Stains on Roof-Tops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria; a study aimed at knowing the nature and characteristics of dark black stains on rooftops in Uyo metropolis has been undertaken. The study which covered key areas of the town, involved taking samples from rooftops, these samples were sent out for tests using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES), X -Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The tests were carried out on the dark black stains which were scrapped from the rooftops. Tests were also carried out on the sheets, which were directly cut from the roofs. The work was able to establish that the dark black stains on the roofs can be cleaned using soft brush and water. The results of the work equally provided the nature and characteristics of the dark black stains on the surface of roofs in Uyo metropolis. The major components of the dark black stains are alumina (16%), silica (43.80%), carbonaceous and volatile organic matter (16.59%), iron oxide (heamatite) (10.55%), potassium oxide (3.20%), titanium oxide (2.93%) and sulphite (SO3) (2.71%). The SEM micrographs gave the structure of the dark black stains which were scrapped from the roofs, the structure revealed small shinny white particles, amorphous molecular structure similar to that of polymers and a crystal structure which resembles that formed by carbon and silica. The SEM micrographs also show how the stains are formed on aluminium and zinc substrate. The nature and characteristics of the dark black stains have indicated that using water from these rooftops for direct consumption purpose may have some health implications, and relevant government agencies are requested to investigate the health implications.

Keywords: understanding, environmental pollution, nature, characterization, dark black stains, Uyo

DOI 10.2412/mmse.95.14.172

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